#
Fibonacci numbers through transformation
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}

There is a clever algorithm for computing the Fibonacci numbers in a logarithmic number of steps. Recall the transformation of the state variables
`a`

and
`b`

in the
`fib-iter`

process of section 1.2.2:
`a ← a + b`

and
`b ← a`

. Call this transformation
`T`

, and observe that applying
`T`

over and over again n times, starting with 1 and 0, produces the pair
`Fib(n + 1)`

and
`Fib(n)`

. In other words, the Fibonacci numbers are produced by applying
`Tⁿ`

, the nth power of the transformation
`T`

, starting with the pair
`(1,0)`

. Now consider
`T`

to be the special case of
`p = 0`

and
`q = 1`

in a family of transformations
`Tpq`

, where
`Tpq`

transforms the pair
`(a,b)`

according to
`a ← bq + aq + ap, b ← bp + aq`

. Show that if we apply such a transformation
`Tpq`

twice, the effect is the same as using a single transformation
`Tp′q′`

of the same form, and compute
`p′`

and
`q′`

in terms of
`p`

and
`q`

. This gives us an explicit way to square these transformations, and thus we can compute
`Tⁿ`

using successive squaring, as in the
`fast-expt`

procedure. Put this all together to complete the following procedure, which runs in a logarithmic number of steps:

```
(define (fib n)
(fib-iter 1 0 0 1 n))
(define (fib-iter a b p q count)
(cond ((= count 0) b)
((even? count)
(fib-iter a
b
<??> ; compute p'
<??> ; compute q'
(/ count 2)))
(else (fib-iter (+ (* b q) (* a q) (* a p))
(+ (* b p) (* a q))
p
q
(- count 1)))))
```